本文是留学生作业网为大家整理的一篇优质Paper代写范文，题目为：The analysis of racial Discrimination from the historical perspective。本文主要讲述了自奥巴马于2007年成为第一位黑人总统以来，美国的种族问题以及种族歧视再次引起了广泛的关注。美国一直被认为是最民主、自由、理想的国家，长期以来种族歧视都不存在。尤其是在1960年代取得了民权运动的胜利之后，美国人的种族歧视逐渐从人们的视野中消失。然而，美国国务院于2000年9月21日发表的声明承认，尽管终止种族歧视的法律已经颁布了数十年，但种族主义或种族歧视仍然存在并困扰着美国社会。
Since Obama became the first black president in 2008,American racial issue and racial discrimination gave rise to large attention again,as America has been considered to be the most democratic,free and ideal country for a lone time that the racial discrimination would not exist any longer.Especially after the triumph of the civil rights movement in the 1960s,American racial discrimination gradually came out of people’s eyes.However,a statement,reported on September 21,2000 by American State Council,admitted that racism or racial discrimination still exists and troubles American society,though the law to terminate the racial discrimination has been issued for dozens of years.The statement declared that although most of the white do not think there are too many problems of racial discrimination,most of minority ethnicity feel not like that in the real life.Racial discrimination in America has been there till now and would not disappear for a long time.Many scholars try to study racial discrimination to answer the two questions what the reasons of the long-term racism are and how to solve the problem from many perspectives,such as the cultural factors,the political factors,religious factors,etc.Compared with this,the paper tries to explore the racial discrimination and solve the two problems in the historical perspective with three aspects of strong concept of the white,historical problem of black slavery,and the awareness and fighting of the black’s consciousness and help to terminate the racial discrimination beneficially by proposing to develop education and provide job opportunities for the black people.
Analysis of Racial Discrimination in Historical Perspective
American concept of the whiteness has a long history.The whiteness has been protecting the white from various kinds of hostility,distress,or violence(Mclntosh).The consciousness is produced before the white met the black people,and it is the self-identification which originated from and accumulated in the English culture.The color of white,as for the English in the Elizabeth era,had a special cultural connotation and was endowed with positive meanings,representing purity,beauty and sincerity,which have some relations or are easily to imagine the goodness,kind,virtue,wisdom and courage,as well as the Christian and angel.For example,some poems eulogized the queen as the most beautiful and purest lily in the world.However,as for the color of black,it was symbolized as the corruption and evil,containing meanings of badness and taboo.
Therefore,when the white people meet the black people,the black people enhance and strengthen the consciousness of the whiteness,that is,when the two different cultures meet and produce conflicts,the white culture,occupying the leading position,tends to measure on its own standard the other culture,situating in the position of disadvantages(Feagin).Historically,under the rule of self-identification,the English focused on themselves and classified classes of other races from high to low with the standards of color,religion,or nationality.Actually,the evil image of the black people was contributed to strengthen and increase the high image of the white people,who utilized the rules of classification to protect themselves and reflect a kind of civilized way to preserve their own culture and identity.Without,the existence of the black people motivates the racial concepts and consciousness of the white.
Overseeing American history,the black slavery had a great influence on the development of the United States,especially the American racial relations.So the racial discrimination and prejudice that can exist for a long time cannot leave out of the influence of the slavery that existed for a long time as well.Slavery stayed in American society as a legal system,which led to huge impacts on the United States.Also,the effects of the slavery could not terminate following the disappearance of the system,as enslaving people had become some kind of activity with consciousness because of the long-term effect of the slavery.We can say,the black people in America not only produced the problems of mentality and self-consciousness that the white people gave them,but also had the abnormal mentality that was changed into the habit and unreasonable motivations with consciousness(Brown).
The black slavery,as a legal system for a long time,absolutely enslaved and oppressed the black people for a long time.Under the system,the black people did not have any rights at all even the most basic right of being a human,let alone the right of freedom.Instead,the black people were taken on as commodity or a kind of assets,which was often transacted in the slave marketing place(Stephan).Meanwhile,the slavery,as a system of enslaving the black people,was terminated though,the thought and concept of enslaving would not disappear forever.Instead,it would be motivated or inspired in the special time and thus turned into an old social issue in the end.During the rebuilding America in history,the free people could still be protected under the preservation of the federal government nominally,but their many reasonable and legal activities and requirements,including the right of election,were said to be conspiracy or protests.Also,the black were limited to read by the white(Buck).What’s more,after the period of rebuilding,the free people were still deprived of the right to vote,especially the people in the south,which did not disappear until the 1950s.For example,the 19th amendment of constitution made the women have the right to vote,but this amendment was just proper to the white women,while the black women had no rights to vote,as they had to pay a tax of 300 dollars as well as take and pass the examination of federal constitution if they wanted the right to vote.Thus,the oppression to the black people by the slavery had huge impact on the black people that it could not be described with few words.
The Awareness of the Black
The black people,the unique race to immigrate to the United States unwillingly and compulsively,had a long history to fight against the white people in America.At the beginning of the protests,the black utilized simple methods of fighting,such as damaging the equipment and facilities,doing arson,poisoning,arousing commotion,fleeing,etc.Later,the fighting was updated to some kind of scale,and developed into the movement with organizations and leadership.Whether carrying out simple protests or movements with scale,the black people were just to spare efforts to join in the upper class of the white society instead of overturning the system that existed(Stokely).
Their purposes of fighting were not to overthrow the white people’s ruling but to fight for the reasonable and legal rights under the current rights,that was,the black people just wanted to strive for the equal rights to the white people’s.For example,Student National Coordinating Committee(SNCC)aimed to establish a society of racial fusion towards the racial segregation,which argued to give the black people rights.Also,there were many other organizations like the SNCC as well,such as Black Muslim,Black Panther Party,or even the Republic of Molossia Flag of the UNIA.svg,etc.These organizations made any attempt to fight for the rights,which gave rise to the increasing worry of the white people and thus deteriorated the relations between the black people and the white people.The black people’s movements from simple activities at first to large-scale forms by setting up organizations indicated that the black people began to fight for their own rights and aroused the awareness of nationalism within their hearts.
Suggestions to Terminate Racial Discrimination
American main social issue of racial discrimination still exists in the real life,and is hard to be resolved and disappear in the short term.The historical factors of the strong consciousness of the whiteness,the slavery and the rise of the black’s national awareness influence and promote each other mutually.Of course,in today’s America the black people have indeed improved themselves to a large extent,as their aspects of education,economy and taking part in politics have large improvement,and the marriage between the black and the white receives large acceptance as well.However,the racial discrimination or racial prejudice still exists in America,and the racists utilize more secret methods and means to carry out the activities of racial discrimination.So it is still very important and urgent to solve the problem of racial discrimination.The black people are often considered to be barbaric and ignorant,because the black people are lack of education,have few jobs and poor life.Therefore,to reduce or even kill the racial discrimination,we can take measures of strengthening the education of the black people and creating more opportunities of jobs for the black people.
It is very important and meaningful to develop the education among the black people to enhance their qualities of culture and civilization.Historically,developing the education had been tried and used to reduce the racial discrimination before(Charles).Also,as is known to us,education is extremely significant either for the personal development and growth or for the development of one race at any time,especially in the today’s society with the fast development of and advance of the science and technology.Nowadays only if the black people receive the education they can go out of the poor situations and go forward a bright future,as they have had backward education and poor knowledge originally.
First,the relevant authorities should strengthen the propaganda of the black people’s education to all kinds of people by various means of media in America,which is to make them realize the importance of the black people’s education.Actually,Media sensationalism,political expedience,and legal constraints can help to reduce racism(Sethi).By the propaganda,people should be rectified that the problems that the black people have are not to blame for the black people themselves,but they should be owned to the results from the unequal treatment of the black people because of the slavery and racial discrimination.So if the American governments really wants to kill the racial discrimination and return the black people the basic rights,they should strive to develop the black people’s education and put this issue on the important rank by increasing the special budgets for the black people’s education.Also,the black people should use their voting rights well to win the rights and benefits that belong to them originally.
Second,the relevant authorities should establish more school for the black people.The black people’s education should start from the kindergarten and primary school.However,there are still many disrupted families,resulting in many children that have no parents or guardians in America.Newly-added schools can hold those children that have no relatives and reduce the rates of dropout.Also,schools should positively contact the black parents and let them participate in the management of the school,which not only make children have more interest and motivations to attend school,but also reduce the chance of dropout.
Without doubt,education is beneficial to the black people from a long term by improving their qualities and increasing their knowledge.Today,with the development of science and society,knowledge economy plays a more and more important role in the world,and education is a high effective method and path to move forward and win a bright future in the competitive western society.The black people have no choice but to develop the education that they can exist among different races,and the United States cannot do but develop the education to terminate the racial discrimination or racial prejudice.
Apart from the means of the developing education,creating more job opportunities is an effective and vital way to reduce or terminate the racial discrimination.American governments have obligations to create equal job opportunities between the black people and the white people,lacking equal job opportunities is one of the most important reasons the black people are considered to be barbaric.Many black people lose jobs because of the discrimination and often make chaos or even crime out of the dissatisfaction.Actually,the black can get success like the white people if they work hard,as there are many black people that acquire great achievements in history.With the large outside forces from the governments and the recovery of inside powers of courage and confidence,the black could go into a good future.
The United States is a great country with many different races,and it is no wander that there is a large social issue of racial discrimination,especially the racial discrimination of the black people.America has the fundamental issue of racial discrimination with three main historical factors of the strong concept of whiteness,the remaining impact of the slavery and the awareness of the black’s nationalism to fight for the rights and equality.These three factors have strong relations and cannot leave each other,leading to the fact that the racial discrimination or racial prejudice of the black people still exists today.Also,with the fast development of science and technology,the termination of racism becomes urgent and important.I believe the methods of developing education and creating equal job opportunities towards the black people are effective and practical to kill the racial discrimination,or at least reduce the racial discrimination.
Brown,John Alvin.“Black American As Third World People”.Journal of Third World Studies,Vol.No.2.Fall.1985.
Buck,Pem Davidson.“Constructing Race,Creating White Privilege”.
Charles,Mills.“The Racial Contract”.Ithaca:Comell Univ Press,1997.
Feagin,J.R.“Racist America”.New York:Routledge,2000.
Mclntosh,Peggy.White Prvilege:Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack.
Sethi,Rita Chaudhry.Smells Like Racism.
Stephan,Themstorm.“America in Black and White:One Nation,Indivisible.New York:Simon&Schuster,1997.
Stokely,Carmaichael.“Black Power”.New York:Random House,1967.
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